Living Sustainably

If not now, when?

Critical developments

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1. The nine Planetary Boundaries - A Safe Operating Space for Humanity   2. Some examples of critical developments out of a long list

1. The nine Planetary Boundaries - A Safe Operating Space for Humanity


This concept generates enormous interest within science, policy, and practice.  

If we exceed these boundaries, abrupt or irreversible environmental changes could occur.

If we do not exceed them, humanity will be able to evolve and thrive over generations.

The 9 planetary boundaries:

  1. Loss of biosphere integrity (biodiversity loss and extinctions)
  2. Climate change

  3. Land system change

  4. Nitrogen and phosphorus flows to the biosphere and oceans

  5. Chemical pollution and the release of novel entities

  6. Freshwater consumption and the global hydrological cycle

  7. Ocean acidification

  8. Stratospheric ozone depletion

  9. Atmospheric aerosol loading

We have already shot past 4 of the 9 planetary boundaries. 

A new study concludes that chemical pollution has also crossed the planetary boundary.
Linn Persson et al. 2022. Outside the Safe Operating Space of the Planetary Boundary for Novel Entities. Journal of Environmental Science & Technology.

A recent reassessment of the planetary boundary for freshwater indicates that it has now been transgressed.
Stockholm Resilience Centre. Freshwater boundary exceeds safe limits. Published 2022.04.26

And ocean acidification is nearing the boundary. 


2. Some examples of critical developments out of a long list


  • In just 200 years, the world's population has grown from 900 million to nearly 8,000 million people.
    By the year 2100, according to the UNO an estimated 10,000 - 11,000 million people are to live on our Earth.

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  • The exploitation of valuable mineral resources and the overfishing of the oceans are progressing without restraint, regardless of the legitimate needs of future generations.
    The extraction of raw materials also causes major environmental pollution.

  • In the past 150 years, almost half of the fertile soil on Earth has disappeared.
Our Earth - Available agricultural land:
Source: UN - World Prospects: The 2015 Revision

  • Every day, about 100 living species die on our planet.

    FAO [Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations] launches the first-ever global report on the state of biodiversity that underpins our food systems.
    State of the World's Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture. 2019

  • Plastic, pharmaceutical products, pesticides, etc. are spreading in nature across the globe. 
    Currently, about 350,000 artificial substances are available; the production of such chemicals has increased about 50-fold in the decades since 1950. The effects on organisms and ecosystems are known from only a small fraction.
    Lars Fischer. Künstliche Chemikalien gefährden Bewohnbarkeit der Erde. Spektrum.de 20.01.2022

  • We pollute drinking water worldwide with serious consequences for millions of people.
    Around 2,000 million people currently have no access to clean drinking water.
Our Earth - Percentage of salt water, fresh water and drinking water:

  • Our protective shield against harmful solar radiation - the ozone layer - has already been weakened.

  • In the past 200 years, 90 percent of the moors have disappeared.
    Although they make up only three percent of the land area, they store more CO2 than all forests together. The current global drainage of the moors produces a CO2 output that makes up about 5 percent of the CO2 emissions caused by humans year for year.

  • We are changing the climate, with serious consequences for both us humans and nature.

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  • Globally, the proportion of livestock has increased to 65% and that of us humans to 32%. The proportion of all wild animals, however, has dropped to 3%.
    [Percentage of biomass of all vertebrates].

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