Living Sustainably

The new challenge with great opportunities for us all

Website started 2018 - Last update April 2021 
Deutsche Sprache

The website is aimed at people in the rich countries of the world who want to rethink how we live our lives today. 

The environment and the climate need to be fully protected. This can only be achieved if we open ourselves to a sustainable life. 

If I do not see the environmental and climate protection in a larger context, then I will underestimate the urgency of my own actions by far. 

1. Our dilemma

Initial Situation - Growth and Resources - Environmental Policy - Digitization - Climate Change - Biodiversity - Economy - Sustainability - Literature list

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Initial Situation 

Our dilemma is that we live in a finite world, but behave as if it were inexhaustible.

No, it's not a climate crisis, but a social crisis. And it has devastating consequences for the climate and nature - for the entire world as we know it today. 
Translated from Lars Hochmann. Economists4future - Verantwortung übernehmen für eine bessere Welt. 2020.

Economic growth is not what everything is based on - but an intact planet

We engage in an experiment that is certain to fail. [...] The gigantic experiment is running worldwide and is based on the hypothesis that unlimited growth is possible on a limited planet.  
Translated from Harald Welzer: Alles könnte anders sein - eine Gesellschaftsutopie für freie Menschen. 2019.

© MintArt | Shutterstock, Inc. [US] 2020    

The 17 goals for a sustainable development are set [UN Agenda 2030]. However, we currently do not know the conditions under which humanity can implement the measures to achieve these sustainability goals globally. 
Christian Berg. 2020. Sustainable Action. Overcoming the Barriers.

For a long time we have

  • followed the instruction «multiply and subdue the Earth».
    In just 200 years, the world's population has grown from 900 million to nearly 8,000 million people. By the year 2100, according to the UNO an estimated 10,000 - 11,000 million people are to live on our Earth.
  • kept thinking as if there were still as few people on earth as there were 200 years ago. 
  • ignored the side effects of technological progress.
  • concealed the concomitants of constant growth.
  • ignored science's warnings of a looming climate change
    No coming catastrophe has ever been studied as thoroughly as global warming. And none has ever been so thoroughly ignored.

© Mike Monahan | Shutterstock, Inc. [US] 2018

With regard to a sustainable development and our consumer behaviour the rich countries of the world are, as it were, «developing countries».

The steadily growing consumption is the engine that drives the steady growth of our economy. 

This in turn results in major environmental impacts worldwide and the climate change and is increasingly endangering our natural basis of life and living together on earth.

The Global Risk Report 2020 of the World Economic Forum:
The five global risks of the coming years that are highest in terms of their likelihood are all environmental.

  • Extreme weather events with great damage to property, infrastructure and human life.
  • Governments and businesses fail to mitigate and adapt to climate change.
  • Man-made environmental damages and disasters.
  • Great loss of biodiversity and collapse of ecosystems with irreversible consequences for the environment, which leads to a severe depletion of resources for humanity and industry.
  • Major natural disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions and geomagnetic storms.

© M-SUR | Shutterstock, [US] 2018  

Growth and Resources

We have to face
the growth dilemma
that is

Giving up on growing our current economy means the risk of economic and social collapse.

Maintaining growth means the risk of destroying global ecosystems that are our basis of existence. 

It's a dilemma: it does not work without growth, there is no completely green growth, and normal growth inevitably leads to ecological disaster.
Translated from: Ulrike Herrmann. Goodbye, Kapitalismus: So kann der Übergang zu einer neuen Wirtschaftsordnung gelingen. Perspective Daily 11. Januar 2021

We urgently need a clear vision, a bold policy, and a truely robust strategy to find the way out of the growth dilemma. The growth dilemma is barely taken into account by the normal policy-makers and is mentioned only marginally in public debate.
Tim Jackson. Prosperity without Growth - Foundations for the economy of tomorrow. 2016 

© Munimara | Shutterstock, Inc. [US] 2018  

It is clear that there are no simple answers to this - none that could be proposed without proposing at the same time a transformation in the whole of the way we think, work and order our lives. 
David Fleming, Surviving the Future: Culture, Carnival and Capital in the Aftermath of the Market Economy. 2016  

The overriding goal, it seems, can no longer be solely growth. It must become a truly sustainable development.
Ernst Ulrich von Weizsäcker and Anders Wijkman. Come on! - Capitalism, Short-terminism, Population and the Destruction of the Planet. 2017
If mankind holds on to the idea that more and more has to be produced economically, then any progress that it makes on the one hand for itself and the environment will be more than destroyed elsewhere. 
Translated from: Maja Göpel. Unsere Welt neu denken - Eine Einladung. 2020

The conventional reaction to the growth dilemma is the call for decoupling of economic growth from resource consumption, including harmful environmental impacts. 

The decoupling is to be achieved with more efficient production processes. However, producing more efficiently means an increase in productivity and this enables further growth with additional resource consumption.

So we cannot just rely on efficiency measures, because we have not succeeded in decoupling global economic growth from resource consumption in absolute terms. The results globally so far do not allow for optimism. 

Global use of materials is accelerating. It has more than tripled since 1970. Moreover, the global economy is only 9 percent circular. Just 9 percent of the 92.8 billion tonnes of material that enter the economy are re-used annually.  
The Circularity Gap Report 2019

Our persistent and ever-lasting extraction and over-utilization of non-renewable natural resources is causing increasingly pervasive global resource scarcity, which is causing faltering human prosperity, increasing political instability, economic fragility, and societal unrest. 
According to Christopher O. Clugston. Blip - Humanity's 300 year self-terminating experiment with industrialism. 2019

Therefore, two different decoupling tasks must be persued:

(1) decoupling the production of goods and services from unsustainable natural consumption and 

(2) decoupling the satisfaction of human needs from the imperative to ever more consumption.
Maja Göpel. The Great Mindshift. 2016

© Christos Georghiou | Shutterstock, Inc. [US] 2018  

So today we are faced with the Herculean task 

  • of satisfying the basic needs of what is soon to be 10 billion people worldwide 
  • while, at the same time, respecting the ecological limits of our planet. 

In this context, it should be remembered:  

A minority of around 20 percent of the world's population, mainly in rich countries, currently accounts for around 80 percent of total global resource consumption.
Multiple sources: The figures indicate the order of magnitude, but there are no exact data available.

Today, 4.3 billion people - around 60 percent of world's population - live in poverty and struggle to survive on less than the equivalent of $ 5 a day.
Jason Hickel. The Divide - A Brief Guide to Inequality and its Solutions. 2017

Environmental Policy

© BlueRingMedia | Shutterstock, Inc. [US] 2019 

The great fallacy of the environmental debate over the past 30 years has been the hope that an ecological turnaround can essentially be implemented with some technological innovation programme within the existing economic order

The continuing impressive development of prosperity has not been able to slow down climate change, resource consumption or the loss of biodiversity - on the contrary, all these pressures have increased massively.
Translated from: Uwe Schneidewind. Die Grosse Transformation - Eine Einführung in die Kunst gesellschaftlichen Wandels. 2018

Today, Europe continues to consume more resources and contribute more to environmental degradation than many other world regions. 

We do not only have to do more; we also have to do things differently. Over the next decade, we are going to need very different answers to the world's environmental and climate challenges than the ones we have provided over the past 40 years. 
The European Environment - State and Outlook 2020. European Environment Agency. 2019

[Because] problems can never be solved with the same mindset that created them. 
Quote from Albert Einstein

© Roman Mikhailiuk | Shutterstock, Inc. [US] 2018 

It is quite simply a fact that the current ways of life and economic activity have a comprehensive and deep impact on various ecosystems. 

Future generations [...] therefore face drastic and irreversible disadvantages. 

To date, environmental and sustainability policy has far from succeeded in achieving a sufficiently strong reduction in ecological burdens. 
Translated from: Institut für ökologische Wirtschaftsforschung (IÖW): Gesellschaftliches Wohlergehen innerhalb planetaren Grenzen, Texte 89/2018 im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamt Deutschland. 2018.

Since [in the «free» market economy] public and common goods such as clean air, biodiversity, cohesion or justice have no price, they can be destroyed for free and the resulting costs be charged to the general public. 
Christian Felber. Change Everything. Creating an Economy for the Common Good. 2015

The 500 largest private companies have an economic and political power that no king, no emperor, no pope has had on this planet. They have established a world dictatorship that is stronger than any state.

This shows the powerlessness of the states. Young people who are now taking to the streets are also aware of this.
Translated from the interview with Jean Ziegler to his latest book «Was ist so schlimm am Kapitalismus - Antworten auf die Fragen meiner Enkelin». Tages-Anzeiger, 12.07.201

We need a policy shift that does not treat sustainability as a possible by-product of an economic growth agenda, but aims directly at sustainable consumption, production and investment.
Translated from: Maja Göpel. Unsere Welt neu denken - Eine Einladung 2020


© LIORIKI | Shutterstock, Inc. [US] 2019

An alignment of the global digital revolution with the goals of sustainability [..] is hardly to be seen, even though many key players emphasise that they have acted for the benefit of humankind. 
German Advisory Council on Global Change 2018.
Digitalization: What We Need to Talk About.   

The combination of digital progress and capitalist ideology in a fully monetarised society obviously leads to a concentration of power among a few, mostly private, actors. 

However, digitalization has contributed as much as nothing to solving the really big problems [...]. Because normally only ideas that can be made into money come onto the market. But most urgent problems are problems that affect the poor.  
Translated from: Jonas Lüscher, Writer - Interview in the newspaper Tages-Anzeiger, 06.01.2018

Overall, digitalization processes today tend to act as «fire accelerants», exacerbating existing non-sustainable trends such as the overuse of natural resources and growing social inequality in many countries.

On the one hand, it must be plainly stated that the digitalization of business and everyday life has so far been marginally oriented towards sustainability aspects.

On the other hand, digitalization offers an enormous range of possibilities for supporting the Great Transformation towards sustainability. 
German Advisory Council on Global Change. Towards our Common Digital Future. 2019. 

Climate Change

© Photobank gallery | Shutterstock, Inc. [US] 2019   © Scharfsinn | Shutterstock, Inc. [US] 2019  

Climate change is one of the most threatening consequences of the pursuit of everlasting economic growth.

Even today, we are presumably much better at understanding the social consequences of climate change than the social conditions for limiting it.
Christian Berg. 2020. Sustainable Action. Overcoming the Barriers. 

An average increase in global warming of 5 degrees worldwide, as predicted by the end of the century, means massive changes. 

5 degrees in the other direction as a comparison, that was the last ice age. About two thirds of Switzerland were covered by ice at that time. That's the measure of change when we talk about 5 degrees.  
Translated from the interview with Reto Knutti, climatologist at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETHZ Zurich, REPUBLIK 23.11.2019 

In fact, China is the single largest emitter of carbon. This is, however, largely due to goods produced in China but consumed elsewhere in the world.

If we attribute the emissions to where the consumption takes place, North Americans consume 22.5 tons of CO2e per year per person, Western Europeans 13.1, Chinese 6, and South Asia just 2.2.

Overall, we get the 50-10 rule: 10 percent of the world's population (the highest polluters) contribute roughly 50 percent of CO2 emissions, while the 50 percent who pollute the least contribute just over 10 percent.

The citizens of rich countries and, more generally, the rich worldwide, bear an overwhelming responsibility for any future climate change. 
Abhijit V. Banerjee and Esther Duflo. 2019. Good Economics for Hard Times - Better Answers to Our Biggest Problems.

The «climate decade»

The goal of halving global emissions by 2030 represents the absolute minimum we must achieve if we are to have at least a 50 per cent chance of safeguarding humanity from the worst impacts. 
Christiana Figueres and Tom Rivett-Carnac. 2020. The Future We Choose - Surviving the Climate Crisis.

The primary challenge is to stop the flow of money to oil, coal and gas and to establish a clear path towards de-carbonization. The «sustainability» of finance can be gauged by how far and how fast it shifts us away from the fossil fuel economy, rather than simply allowing the financial sector to develop new «green» markets alongside a core business that continues to bankroll climate change. 
Oscar Reyes. Change Finance - Not the Climate. 2020

We are entering the «climate decade». A ten year period where our collective actions will determine the kind of world our children and grandchildren will inherit. 
The Climate Decade. Ten Years to Deliver the Paris Agreement. The GlobeScan-SustainAbility Servey. 2019

© Monkey Business Images | Shutterstock, Inc. [US] 2018  

Covid-19 has demonstrated that the foundations of prosperity are precarious. Disasters long talked about, and long ignored, can come upon you with no warning, turning life inside out and shaking all that seemed stable. The harm from climate change will be slower than the pandemic but more massive and longer-lasting. If there is a moment for leaders to show bravery in heading off that disaster, this is it. They will never have a more attentive audience.
A new opportunity to tackle climate change - Countries should seize the moment to flatten the climate curve. The Economist - May 21st, 2020 

Contrary to most problems, climate change is not complex, the causes well known, the necessary answers clear. The challenge we face is that we do not do what obviously should be done - urgently. 
Theodor H. Winkler. Living in an Unruly World. The Challenges We Face. 2019

We think of climate change as slow, but it is unnervingly fast. We think of the technological change necessary to avert it as fast-arriving, but unfortunately it is deceptively slow, especially judged by just how soon we need it.
David Wallace-Wells. The uninhabital earth. Life after warming. 2019


© Pavel K | Shutterstock, Inc. [US] 2020  

The large and rapidly progressing decline in global biodiversity is also a serious risk to the food security of future humans.

Land use change linked to massive expansion of globalized, highly commercialized industrial agriculture is the main overarching driver of declining agrobiodiversity. 1 % of the world's farms operate 70% of crop fields, ranches and orchards.

Globally, the FAO estimates that 75 % of crop diversity was lost in the 20th century. Historically about 7,000 plant species were cultivated for food, today only about 80 plant species make major contributions to food supplies at the global level.

In fact, half of all plant-based calories come from only three species - rice, maize, and wheat. And 93 % of global meat supplies come from just four animal species - pigs, poultry, cattle, and buffalo.

Looking ahead, restoring agrobiodiversity - the richness of what we cultivate, breed, consume, and conserve in the wild - is crucial to ensure resilient food systems against the backdrop of climate change. 
Variety is the source of life: Agrobiodiversity benefits, challenges, and needs. Swiss academies factsheets Vol.15 No.1 - 2020

Only if there is a fundamental change in the way we manage land can we reach the targets of climate-change mitigation, avert the dramatic loss of biodiversity and make the global food system sustainable.
German Advisory Council on Global Change WBGU. 2020. Rethinking Land in the Anthropocene: from Separation to Integration.


© underworld | Shutterstock, Inc. [US] 2019     © Sira Anamwong | Shutterstock, Inc. [US] 2019  

The incentives in today's economic system are still one-sidedly promoting the exploitation of nature and man.

We may have increasingly queried the absence of Nature from official conceptions of economic possibilities, but the worry has been left for Sundays. On week-days, our thinking has remained as usual.
Partha Dasgupta. 2021. The Economics of Biodiversity: The Dasgupta Review. Abridged Version. 2021

Economic growth based on exploitation - the business model of the rich West for 400 years - has reached its limits. The exploitability of people and the ecosystems [...] leads to migration in millions and catastrophic environmental impacts. 
Translated from: Philipp Blom. Was auf dem Spiel steht. 2017

There will be no more simple solutions for our problems. As for example: More market, more growth, more prosperity - that does not work.
Translated from an interview with Silke Beck, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Um­welt­for­schung in Leip­zig. 14.05.2020.

Many people feel unhappy about the economic development in recent years. And rightly so. The boom of the recent past was for the most part an alleged boom, caused mainly by an enormous inflation of the money supply - namely at the expense of an increasingly unhealthy economic structure.

By opponents and supporters as well, globalization used to be considered for a long time as a law of nature following an implacable logic. At the same time - at least in its current exaggerated state - it is a gigantic bubble that carries in its core its own destruction.

There are more rich people than ever in the world, yet there have never been so many poor people without hope for dignity. 
Translated from Max Otte. 2019. Weltsystem Crash - Krisen, Unruhen und die Geburt einer neuen Weltordnung.

© mipan | Shutterstock, Inc. [US] 2020    

Have now - pay later. In order not to be limited by what one can currently achieve by ones' means, the store of future possibilities is plundered in advance.

The current syndrome of indebtedness is not only an indicator of greed and impatience, but also of organised irresponsibility. The further debts are pushed onto the future, the starker the constraints will be on the options and freedoms of future generations. 
Niko Paech. 2016. Liberation from Excess - The Road to a post-growth economy.

.... [it is] the conditions of any future economy that need to be redeveloped: For all the great achievements that we can look back on have only been at the price of not taking into account either the natural conditions or the living situations of people in other parts of the world. 
Translated from: Harald Welzer. Alles könnte anders sein - Eine Gesellschaftsutopie für freie Menschen. 2019 

The ecological problems will increase and so will the social and economic upheavals. [...] we need to ask ourselves what kind of economic system will serve the people and also maintain the ecological foundations. Today's does not.   

Translated from: Interview with the economist Irmi Seidl. Der ökologische Umbau wird die Arbeitswelt verändern. Tages-Anzeiger. 15.02.2020


© Gustavo Frazao | Shutterstock, Inc. [US] 2019 

It isn't the goal of transforming our society towards a sustainable development that is utopian, but rather the view that today's non-sustainable development can simply be maintained.

  • We have to move towards a sustainable life, even if there is no master plan on how to achieve the transformation of our present society - with its perpetual expansion - towards sustainable development.
  • Sustainable development is hardly conceivable without a consistent resource-efficient Circular Economy. Turning away from the predominantly linear economy now requires many political, economic, and social settings of the course.

  • We must move from the deeply internalized attitude of competition and self-interest to a basic attitude of cooperation and common good, if for example, we really want to curb global climate change.

© Rudmer Zwerver | Shutterstock, Inc. [US] 2018 

Our dilemma as environmentally-aware affluent citizens

If we wealthy people want to protect the environment, all we have to do today - so we consumers are told - is to go to the supermarket. There are now sustainable and environmentally-friendly products everywhere. 

We can therefore seemingly consume more and more without any worries and thereby even do something good for the environment.

Almost no product from toilet paper up to cars is sold without the promise that one makes the world a little better.

«Buy me and make this world a little bit better» is the key message found among sustainable brand's marketing. It is argued that the market will fix the climate problem: One does not have to consume less, but only consume in a different way.

Now, however, the validity of this approach is being shaken daily by reports of the consequences of our actions. 

What we consider sustainable consumption so often leaves behind poverty and environmental destruction elsewhere in the world. 
Translated according to Marcus Jauer. Tages-Anzeiger 10.12.2018 und Sebastian Schoep. Tages-Anzeiger 06.06.2019

© | Shutterstock, Inc. [US] 2018     

Who really wants to change something, can't get around thinking about the dogma of «ALWAYS MORE». 

So renunciation - but what does renunciation mean?
In rich countries, renunciation means [...] actually nothing more and nothing less than refraining from ruining the planet and in return preserving the basis of life in the future.  -  That's a big word, of course. Couldn't it be a little bit smaller? Unfortunately not. 
Translated from: Maja Göpel. 2020. Unsere Welt neu denken. Eine Einladung.

Literature list

©  Geza Farkas | Shutterstock, Inc. [US] 2018

Abhijit V. Banerjee and Esther Duflo. 2019. Good Economics for Hard Times - Better Answers to Our Biggest Problems.

Christian Berg. 2020. Sustainable Action - Overcoming the Barriers.
Excerpts from the book

Christian Felber. Change Everything. 2015. Creating an Economy for the Common Good.
Foreword and table of contents.

Christiana Figueres and Tom Rivett-Carnac. 2020. The Future We Choose - Surviving the Climate Crisis.
Author's note and Introduction

David Wallace-Wells. 2019. The uninhabital earth. Life after warming.
Read an excerpt

European Environment Agency. 2019. The European Environment - State and Outlook 2020. 
Executive Summary.

Ernst Ulrich von Weizsäcker and Anders Wijkman. 2017. Come on! - Capitalism, Short-terminism, Population and the Destruction of the Planet.
Table of contents and excerpts from the book.

German Advisory Council on Global Change. 2019. Towards our Common Digital Future

Graeme Maxton. 2018. Change! - Why We Need a Radical Change. 
Download book PDF

Jason Hickel. 2017. The Divide. A Brief Guide to Global Inequality and its Solutions.
Table of contents and excerpts of the book.

Maja Göpel. 2016. The Great Mindshift - How a New Economic Paradigm and Sustainability Transformations go Hand in Hand.
Download book PDF. 

Niko Paech. 2016. Liberation from Excess - The Road to a post-growth economy.
Download book PDF.

Oscar Reyes. 2020. Change Finance - Not the Climate.
Published by the Transnational Institute and the Institute for Policy Studies.
Download Executive Summary or Full book.

The GlobeScan - SustainAbility Survey. 2019. The Climate Decade. Ten Years to Deliver the Paris Agreement.

Theodor H. Winkler. 2019. Living in an Unruly World. The Challenges We Face.
Excerpts from the book 

Tim Jackson. 2016. Prosperity without Growth - Foundations for the Economy of Tomorrow.
Table of contents and excerpts from the book.

World Economic Forum WEF - The Global Risks Report 2020

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